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Microalgae are usually unicellular, colonial, filamentous, pseudoparenchymal and syphoned microorganisms that can be found in very different habitats, showing great adaptation ability to adverse conditions. In the case of autotrophic microalgae, they have the ability to use carbon dioxide (CO2), water and light for the formation of biomass and the release of oxygen (O2), renewing and purifying atmospheric air.

Some of them has high levels of biomass production and CO2 fixation (about ten times more than the higher plants), justifying the development of industrial systems to promote large scale production.

Also, some microalgae have the potential to accumulate compounds, including lipids (some with relatively high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids) that can be used in many industries, such as biofuels, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics. Other microalgae have potential for environmental bioremediation, as biofertilizers and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other polluting agents, either atmospheric or released by factories, and can be also used in wastewater treatment, making the water cleaner.

 

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